The Truth About Vitamins in Dietary Supplements - Doctors Research, Inc. (2023)

Abstract:While naturopathic experts believe that people should not try to consume petroleum products or hydrogenated sugars, most people seem to ignore this fact when supplementing with vitamins. This article discusses some of the biochemical reasons why dietary vitamins are superior to human vitamins. It also explains which substances are commonly used to make vitamins in dietary supplements. Additionally, some advantages of food vitamins over common non-food vitamins are discussed.


For decades, the "natural" health industry has promoted thousands of vitamin supplements. Most vitamins in food supplements are indeed produced or processed from petroleum derivatives or hydrogenated sugars [1-5]. Despite often claiming to be natural, most non-food vitamins are isolated substances with a crystalline structure [1]. Vitamins that occur naturally in foods are not crystalline and are not isolated.Vitamins in real food are chemically and structurally different from those commonly found in "natural vitamin formulas."Because of their differences, naturopathic physicians should consider nonfood vitamins as vitamin analogs (imitations), not real vitamins.

The Naturopathic Standards agreed upon in 1947 (at the Golden Jubilee Convention) included the following statement: "Natural remedies do not use synthetic or inorganic vitamins...Natural remedies use...the healing properties of natural foods, organic vitamins" [5]. As early as the 1940s, experts interested in natural health recognized the value of vitamins in food relative to non-food vitamins. Also, it's worth noting that the naturopathic definition of organic at the time was similar to the official U.S. government definition today -- why is it worth mentioning? Because a pseudo-health practitioner had told the researcher that a certain brand of synthetic vitamins contained "organic vitamins" because the sales rep told him so. Unfortunately, this rep was intentionally giving false or wrong information - wrong because according to its "scientific" definition, the word "organic" could mean that it is a substance that contains carbon, so that definition implies all Petroleum derivatives (hydro-carbon) are organic. But wrongly, this vitamin is not organic from the standpoint of real natural medicine or even the US government.

Formally, according to prevailing science, "a vitamin is a small amount of organic substance necessary for the health, growth, reproduction, and nutrition of one or more animals and which must be included in the diet because they simply cannot be synthesized" in the body in sufficient amount. Each vitamin has a specific function; therefore, one cannot replace the other. Vitamins derived primarily from plant tissue" [6]. Isolated non-food "vitamins" (often referred to as "natural" or USP or pharmaceutical grade) are not naturally "found in the diet", are not necessarily "primarily derived from plant tissue", and cannot Completely replaces all natural vitamin actives. As a naturopathic doctor, you should be able to read and interpret even misleading nutritional supplement labels. For those who are unsure, we hope this article provides enough information to identify vitamin Pills are food or knockoffs.

What exactly are your vitamins?

Most vitamins in dietary supplements are derived from petroleum extracts, coal tar derivatives, and chemically processed sugars (and sometimes fish oils), which are processed with other acids and industrial chemicals such as formaldehyde [1-5]. Synthetic vitamins were originally developed because they were cheaper [7]. Assuming non-food products do not contain fish oil, most synthetic petroleum-derived dietary supplements label their products as "vegetarian" not because they are of plant origin, but because they are not of animal origin. Most of the vitamins in food-source vitamin supplements are found in foods such as acerola cherries, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, lemons, limes, nutritional yeast, oranges, and rice bran (some companies also use animal products).

Table 1. Composition of Food and Nonfood Vitamins[1-10]

vitaminnutrient*"Natural" analogs of vitamins and some processing chemicals
Vitamin A/beta-caroteneradishMethanol, benzene, petroleum esters; acetylene; refined oils
Vitamin B-1Nutritional Yeast, Rice Bran

Coal tar derivatives, hydrochloric acid;

Vitamin B-2Nutritional Yeast, Rice BranSynthesized with 2N acetic acid
Vitamin B-3Nutritional Yeast, Rice BranCoal tar derivatives, 3-cyanopyridine; ammonia and acids
Vitamin B-5Nutritional Yeast, Rice BranCondensation of isobutyraldehyde with formaldehyde
Vitamin B-6Nutritional Yeast, Rice BranPetroleum esters and hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde
Vitamin B-8Reis

Phytotin is hydrolyzed by calcium hydroxide and sulfuric acid

Vitamin B-9Broccoli, Rice SauceTreatment with petroleum derivatives and acids; acetylene
Vitamin B-12nutritional yeastCobalamin reacts with cyanide
Vitamins "B-x"PABA NährhefeOxidation of coal tar (from ammonia) with nitric acid
colinNutritional Yeast, Rice BranEthylene and ammonia with HCL or tartaric acid
Vitamin CAcerola cherries, citrus fruitsHydrogenated sugars treated with acetone
Vitamin Dnutritional yeastIrradiated animal fat/bovine brain or solvent extraction
Vitamin Erice, vegetable oilTrimethylhydroquinone and isophytes; refined oil
Vitamin HNutritional Yeast, Rice Branbiosynthetic production
Vitamin KColeCoal tar derivative; made from p-allelic nickel

*Note: While some companies use liver extract as a source of vitamin A and/or D, and at least one company's herring oil product provides some vitamin E, this researcher is not aware of any company whose products use 100% animal Extract-derived foods all contain multivitamins. Some companies also use brewer's yeast, which is inferior to nutritional yeast in many ways (including the fact that the cell walls are not treated with enzymes to reduce potential sensitivity).

Read labels for chemical differences!

Although many physicians have been told that dietary and non-dietary vitamins have the same chemical composition, this is not the case for most vitamins. As Table 2 shows, food and synthetic nutrients often differ in chemical form. Healthcare professionals need to understand this because there is no prescribed definition for "natural"; just because you see this term on a label doesn't mean that a dietary supplement contains only natural nutrients. One of the best ways to know if a vitamin supplement contains vitamins naturally found in foods is to understand the chemical differences between dietary and non-dietary vitamins (sometimes called USP vitamins). Because they are often not in the same chemical form as vitamins found in food, naturopathic experts should consider nonfood vitamins to be vitamin analogs (artificial simulants) rather than true human vitamins.

Table 2. Chemical Forms of Food and Nonfood Vitamins[1-10]

Major chemical forms of vitamins in foodChemical forms of vitamin analogs (often called natural*)
Vitamin A/Beta-Carotene; Retinyl Esters; Mixed CarotenoidsVitamin A acetate; Vitamin A palmitate; Beta-carotene (isolated)
Vitamin B-1; Thiamine Pyrophosphate (Food)Thiamine Mononitrate; Thiamine Hydrochloride; Thiamine Hydrochloride
Vitamin B-2; Riboflavin, various forms (food)Riboflavin (izoliran); USP Vitamin B2
Vitamin B-3; Niacinamide (side)Niacin (isolated); Niacinamide (isolated)
Vitamin B-5; pantothenate (hrana)Pantothenic Acid; Calcium Pantothenate; Panthenol
Vitamin B-6; 5'0 (Beta-D) pyridoxinePyridoxine Hydrochloride; Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
Vitamin B-9; Folic Acidfolic acid
Vitamin B-12; Methylcobalamin; DeoxyadenosylcobalaminCyanocobalamin; Hydroxocobalamin
Choline (food); Phosphatidylcholine (food)氯化胆溶; Çolin-Bitartrate
Vitamin C; Ascorbic Acid (Food); Dehydroascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid; most mineral ascorbates (i.e. sodium).

ascorbic acid)

Vitamin D; mixed forms, mostly D3 (food)Vitamin D1 (isolated); Vitamin D2 (isolated); Vitamin D3 (isolated); Vitamin D4; Ergosterol (isolated); Cholecalciferol (isolated); Photosterol
Vitamin E;RRR-Alpha Tocopherol (hrana)

Vitamin E acetate; Mixed tocopherols;All-Rac-alpha-tocopherol; d-l-alpha-tocopherol; d-alpha-tocopherol (izoliran); dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; all methyl acetates

Vitamin H; BiotinAny vegan biotin without yeast or rice
Vitamin K; Phylloquinone (Food)

Vitamin K3; Menardion; Plant Phosphorus; Naphthol; Dihydrovitamin K1

*Note: This list is not exhaustive and new analogs are constantly being developed. The word "(isolated)" also indicates that if the word "food" is not near the name of the substance, it may be an isolate (usually a crystalline structure) that is not the same as the actual vitamin found in the food.

Read supplement labels to determine if the product is truly 100% food. Even if a USP vitamin analog is listed, the entire product may not be a food (usually less than 5% of a food). Vitamin analogs are cheap (or not-so-cheap) imitations of vitamins found in foods.

Beware of supplements that claim vitamins are vegetarian and yeast-free. The researcher was not aware of any commonly used vegetarian, non-yeast methods for making vitamin D or many of the B vitamins. Therefore, if a product is labeled as "yeast-free", it is an indication in almost all cases that the product is synthetic or contains ingredients so isolated that it should not be considered a food.

Saccharomyces cerevisiaeAccording to the German electronic monograph, (primary yeast used in baking and brewing) is beneficial to humans and can help fight various infections [11], including Candida albicans. In the text,medical mycologyJohn Rippon (PhD in Mycology, University of Chicago) writes: "There are more than 500 known species of yeast, all distinct. While there are so-called bad yeasts, the health food industry's controversy over harmful yeast has led many health-conscious It is ludicrous for people to eliminate all yeast products from their diet. It should also be noted that W. Crook, MD, probably the foremost expert on Candida albicans in the United States, wrote: "Foods containing yeast will not Promotes the growth of Candida.... Consumption of foods containing yeast does not result in the proliferation of Candida organisms" [12].]. However, some individuals are allergic to yeast cell walls [12], providing nutritional yeast related supplementation Agent manufacturers often enzymatically treat cell walls to reduce this unlikely occurrence.

Vitamins obtained from food are better than vitamins not obtained from food

While many mainstream health experts believe that “the body cannot tell whether vitamins in the blood come from organically grown melons or from a pharmacy lab”[13], this belief is simply false for a number of reasons. First, it seems to assume that the process of getting a certain amount of vitamin into the blood is the same (which is often not the case [3-10]). Second, while particle size is not included in the chemical assessment, scientists understand that particle size is an important factor in nutrient absorption. Third, scientists have also learned that "dietary factors that affect nutrient absorption are not only related to the properties of the nutrients themselves, but also to their interactions with non-absorbable dietary components" [14]. Fourth, "the physicochemical form of the nutrient is an important factor for bioavailability" (vitamins are often in different forms in food and non-food substances) [15]. Fifth, most non-food vitamins have a crystalline structure [1].

Published scientific studies have concluded that “natural vitamins are nutritionally superior to synthetic vitamins” [8].

Dietary vitamins exist in physicochemical forms recognized by the body, generally do not have a crystalline structure, contain dietary factors that affect bioavailability, and appear to be small in size (see figures in Table 3). This is not to say that non-food vitamins have no value (which is clearly the case), but it is important to understand that multivitamins in whole foods have actually been shown to be better than non-food vitamins in isolation (see Table 4 . ).

Look at electronic photos to see structural differences

Electron photographs show that isolated USP vitamins have a crystalline appearance compared to food vitamins which typically have a more rounded appearance (see Table 3).

Table 3. Physical and Structural Differences

The Truth About Vitamins in Dietary Supplements - Doctors Research, Inc. (1)Vitamin C in Food

The Truth About Vitamins in Dietary Supplements - Doctors Research, Inc. (2)ascorbic acid

The Truth About Vitamins in Dietary Supplements - Doctors Research, Inc. (3)Nutrition Vitamin B1

The Truth About Vitamins in Dietary Supplements - Doctors Research, Inc. (4)Thiamine Hydrochloride

Digital photo

Even before these images appeared, the late Dr. Royal Lee discovered that dietary vitamin C is better than ascorbic acid. “Dr. Lee believes that it is unfair to use the name “vitamin C” for ascorbic acid. This term “should be reserved for vitamin C complex”[16]. Why is the dietary supplement company originally founded by Dr. Lee, according to the current catalog , does it currently use ascorbic acid, inorganic mineral salts, and/or other isolated nutrients in most of its products? Dr. Lee, like the late Dr. Bernard Jensen[17], is against the use of other isolated nutrients, synthetic nutrients[16] .

Specifically, Dr. Lee writes: "It is true that food and drug laws appear to be ineffective when it comes to synthetic imitations of good foods, and in fact they perversely sue the manufacturers and sellers of the original products...Synthetics are always a simple chemical substance.” It is naturally a complex mixture of related and similar substances. All natural vitamin E has been shown to be three times more effective than pure synthetic vitamin E. Of course, the toxicity of synthetic vitamin D is well known. Why don't people do doctors know these facts? Is it because commercial promoters of cheap knockoff food and drugs spend enough money to prevent spills? "[18].

Table 4. Comparison of Individual Biological Effects of Food and Nonfood Vitamins

dietary vitaminsCompared to USP/"natural"/non-food vitamins
Vitamin AMore completely, vitamin A does not exist in isolation, as scientists have learned [19].
Vitamin BComplex More effective in maintaining body health and liver function [20,21]
Vitamin B-9Available in over 266 micrograms (recommended daily intake is 400 micrograms)[22]
Vitamin CAntioxidant effect increased by more than 15.6 times [23]
Vitamin DMore than 10 times more anti-rachitic effect [24]
Vitamin EUp to 4.0 times better ability to trap free radicals [25]
Vitamin HBiotin up to 100 times more powerful [1]
Vitamin KSafer for children [26]

The differences are not just quantitative.

Taking vitamin C as an example, even if we consume the so-called natural ascorbic acid from non-food sources, which is 3.2 times that of vitamin C in food, the antioxidant effect is similarin vitro, ascorbic acid still does not contain DHAA [1] nor does it have a negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). andin vitroA study using a digital ORP meter in the researcher's lab showed that vitamin C in citrus fruits has a negative ORP, but ascorbic acid has a positive ORP [27].

A negative ORP is required to counteract oxidative damage [28], and since ascorbic acid has a positive ORP (and thus a positive redox potential [1]), it can never replace dietary vitamin C in any amount! In addition, foods rich in vitamin C have a higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, another test that measures the ability of foods and other compounds to scavenge oxygen radicals [23]). A U.S. government study comparingliveThe effect of high vitamin C food (containing 80 mg vitamin C) was about 15.6 times that of isolated ascorbic acid (1250 mg) compared to high vitamin C food (containing 80 mg vitamin C), indicating that vitamin C containing food led to blood antioxidant level increases the most. (It is believed that). bioflavonoids and other dietary factors are responsible) [23].

Furthermore, there may even be only isolated ascorbic acidin vitroi brliveAntioxidant effects: "A higher intake of {SYNTHETIC} vitamin C than ascorbic acid has not been conclusively demonstrated to have an antioxidant clinical benefit" [29]. Why should people also take synthetic ascorbic acid, since its antioxidant effects have not been proven in humans?

"Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer is inversely related to vitamin C intake. The protective effect observed in these studies is due to fruit and vegetable intake} Vitamin C has been shown in small studies have found, whereas large studies, well-controlled studies have shown no benefit” [29]. Another quantity is that, in humans, "at doses of 400 mg per day and above, plasma is completely saturated, resulting in a steady-state plasma concentration of 80 mM...but tissues become saturated before plasma" [29]. Diluted vitamin C-containing foods by adding more isolated ascorbic acid had no effect at all on plasma vitamin C levels, ORP, ORAC, or other aspects of health desired by many isolated ascorbic acid consumers [3 ]., 27,29].

No matter how much isolate ascorbic acid you take orally

  • It never saturates plasma and/or tissue vitamin C levels significantly beyond that achieved by consuming adequate vitamin C-containing foods.
  • It will never exhibit a negative ORP and therefore will never be able to "clear" oxidative damage like dietary vitamin C can.
  • It can never fight free radicals like vitamin C in food.
  • It never contains DHAA (the other "half" of vitamin C) or the nutrient factors that boost it.
  • It will never have the same impact on health issues like aging and cardiovascular disease as foods rich in vitamin C.
  • It has never been utilized like vitamin C in food.
  • There will always be synthetic materials.

Let's take vitamin E as an example - the body has specific hepatic transport of vitamin E types found in food [10] - but this is not the case for synthetic forms of vitamin E (nor are there "new" vitamin analogs) .often sold) - so no amount of synthetic vitamin E can really compete with dietary vitamin E - and the body actually tries to get rid of synthetic vitamin E as quickly as possible [30]. As another example, it is known that certain forms of analogues of vitamin B-6 [19], D [10] and biotin [1] have been shown to have little to no vitamin activity.

Fractionated synthetic vitamins do not replace all of the natural functions of dietary vitamins in the body. This is because they are usually chemically and structurally different from vitamins found in food (or vitamin supplements made entirely from food) (they also do not have the natural nutrient factors your body needs).

Dietary vitamins and non-dietary vitamin analogs

Vitamin A/beta-carotene:Vitamin A occurs naturally in foods, but not as a single compound. Vitamin A is present primarily as retinyl esters rather than retinol, and beta-carotene is always present as a mixture of carotenoids and chlorophyll [10]. Vitamin A acetate is derived from methanol and is a crystalline form of retinol [1]. Vitamin A palmitate can be obtained from fish oils [1] or synthesized [2]; however, once isolated, it bears little resemblance to food and may exhibit a crystalline structure [1,2]. Synthetic beta-carotene "is formed by condensation of aldehydes (from acetone) with acetylene" [2]; "due to high production costs, there are not many natural beta-carotene available" [2].

"Beta-carotene has been found to have antioxidantin vitro...{ISOLATED} Does beta-carotene have significant antioxidant effectsliveUnclear” [32]. Carrot is a food high in β-carotene, which has a high antioxidant effect [32,33]. Natural β-carotene found in food consists of all-trans and 9-cis isomer, while synthetic β-carotene consists of the all-trans isomer [34]. Carrots, yellow-green leafy vegetables and turmeric naturally contain β-carotene as well as a variety of carotenoids. Natural β-carotene was found to be Significantly reduced serum conjugated diene levels in children exposed to high levels of radiation. However, it is unclear whether synthetic β-carotene would provide similar benefits [34].

With regard to isolated beta-carotene, "the presented data provide convincing evidence of the deleterious properties of this compound when administered alone as a micronutrient supplement to smokers or individuals exposed to environmental carcinogens" [35]. "Three beta-carotene intervention studies: the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Study (CARET), the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) all showed a lack of efficacy Designated synthetic beta-carotene for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer in well-nourished populations. The potential contribution of beta-carotene supplements to the increased risk of lung cancer in smokers has become an important issue. Synthetic beta-carotene supplements The safety of β-carotene and the role of isomeric forms of β-carotene (synthetic "natural" mixtures of all-trans and cis-trans isomers) ... have been a topic of debate in the scientific and medical communities" [36]. Although the consumption of synthetic and dietary β-carotene increased serum vitamin A levels to about the same extent, this masks the fact that synthetic β-carotene tended primarily to increase all-trans-increasing serum β-carotene, whereas dietary Beta-carotene is also increased in other forms [37].

Synthetic β-carotene may negatively affect the antioxidant effects of vitamin E, as shown in a clinical study: "These results support previous findings of a protective effect of α-tocopherol on LDL oxidation and suggest that β-carotene is involved in the oxidation as a pro-oxidant." LDL is degraded under these conditions. Because high levels of α-tocopherol do not attenuate the prooxidative effects of β-carotene, these results suggest that increased LDL-β-carotene may disrupt the protective properties of α-tocopherol” [38]. Stephen Sinatra (Med Ph.D.) noted in a consumer-focused publication: "Research suggests that high doses of synthetic beta-carotene—found in many popular brands—may actually increase the risk of lung cancer. "Pro-Oxidants - Exactly the opposite of what you want...I've seen adverse effects (such as severe vision loss) in people taking 80,000 IU of beta-carotene per day. Bottom line: when it comes to beta-carotene , less is more-carotene. To be on the safe side, I recommend consuming 12,500 to 25,000 IU of beta-carotene per dayfood sourcelike carrots” [39].

However, beta-carotene in carrots is even safer than Ph.D. in my opinion. Sinatra is suspected (raw carrots contain approximately 12,000 IU of beta-carotene). This is because beta-carotene in carrots binds to lipoproteins, which seem to help prevent toxicity. Isolated USP Beta-Carotene, while said to be from a "natural" source, simply does not bind lipoproteins or other potentially protective substances found in foods such as carrots.

While isolated synthetic vitamin A and polar bear liver have toxicity concerns, no other foods that provide vitamin A/β-carotene have [40,41]. Foods containing vitamin A and/or beta-carotene are more effective [8].

Vitamin B-1, Thiamine:Vitamin B-1 is found in the diet as thiamine pyrophosphate, thiamine monophosphate, and thiamine [10]. Inedible thiamine mononitrate is a derivative of coal tar [4], never occurs naturally in the body [10], and is a crystalline isolate [1] (the same applies to thiamine hydrochloride and other forms of chloride). Synthetic forms are often used for "food fortification" (processing to remove natural thiamine) because they are cheaper and more stable in this case. However, they are inferior to natural forms of thiamine [8,42]. “The nutritional value of pure white flour ... was found to be inferior to that of whole wheat flour, even when deficiencies in protein, minerals, and {synthetic] vitamin B1 were corrected” [42].

Vitamin B-2, Riboflavin:It occurs naturally in foods as riboflavin and various forms of coenzymes [10]. In non-food products, it is usually produced synthetically with 2N acetic acid and is isolated in one form with a crystalline structure [1]. Some synthetic analogues of riboflavin have weak vitamin activity [43]. Some natural variation, especially in coenzyme forms, occurs in plant species, including fungal species [44]. Several studies have shown that dietary riboflavin is superior to non-dietary forms [8,41].

Vitamin "B-3", Niacinamide:It is mainly found in food in forms other than niacin [10]. "Niacin is a general term...the two coenzymes that serve as the metabolically active form of niacin are...nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP)...Little amounts of free form of nicotinic acid occur in nature Acid. Most niacin in food exists as a component of NAD and NADP...Niacinamide is more soluble in water, alcohol, and ether than niacin...Many niacin analogs have been synthesized, some of which have antivitamin activity” [ 10]. Niacinamide (also known as nicotinamide) may have fewer potential side effects than niacin [10]; it also does not appear to cause the gastrointestinal upset or liver toxicity that synthetic slow-release niacin may cause [45] . The processing loss of this vitamin is mainly caused by water leaching [46]. Isolated non-food niacinamide usually consists of 3-cyanopyridine, which can form crystals [1]. This non-food "niacin" is synthesized from acetaldehyde through a variety of chemical reactions, usually involving formaldehyde and ammonia [2,47]. Beef, legumes, grains, yeast, and fish are important natural dietary sources of vitamin B3[ 45].

Vitamin "B-5", pantothenic acid:It occurs naturally in food as pantothenate [10]. "Pantothenic acid, usually in the form of coenzyme A, plays multiple roles in cellular metabolism, playing a central role in the oxidation of glycolysis products and other metabolites that fuel the mitochondrial citric acid cycle...fatty acids and membrane phospholipids The synthesis of sphingolipids, including regulatory sphingolipids, requires "pantothenic acid and the synthesis of the amino acids leucine, arginine, and methionine requires a step that requires pantothenic acid. CoA is required for the synthesis of isoprenoid derivatives such as cholesterol, steroid hormones, dolichols, vitamin A, vitamin D, and heme A” [10]. “It also appears to be involved in gene expression and signal transduction Modulation of ... may have antioxidant and radioprotective properties ... purported to be anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and antiviral ... may help manage some patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... demonstrated to promote wound healing. "accelerate" [32]. “Synthetic D-pantothenate . “Multivitamin preparations often contain the alcohol derivative panthenol” [10]. “Dexpanthenol is a synthetic form that does not occur in nature” [32]. USP pantothenic acid is produced by the condensation of isobutyraldehyde and formaldehyde [2]. composed of pantothenic acid amide linked to β-alanine”, but vitamin B-5 does not occur naturally in this form [48]. Vitamin B-5 occurs in the diet as pantothenic acid; foods that do not naturally contain pantothenic acid [48]. Vegetarian foods with the highest natural pantothenic acid content are nutritional yeast, brown rice, peanuts, and broccoli [10,32,48].Saccharomyces cerevisiaeOne of the best natural sources of pantothenic acid in food [10,32]. Calcium pantothenate is a synthetic enantiomer [10], calcium salt [1] and crystalline [2].

Vitamin B-6:Plants naturally contain vitamin B6 mainly in the form of 5'0-(β-D-pyranosyl) and other pyridoxines rather than pyridoxal [10]. Pyridoxine hydrochloride does not occur naturally in the body [10], it is a crystalline isolate [1], usually produced from petroleum and hydrochloric acid and treated with formaldehyde [4]. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate is produced by combining phosphorus oxychloride and/or adenosine triphosphate with pyridoxal [1]; it becomes a crystalline isolate [1] that bears little resemblance to dietary vitamin B6. At least one synthetic analogue of vitamin B-6 has been found to inhibit the natural effects of vitamin B-6 [49]. In one study of healthy older adults, approximately one-third were slightly deficient in vitamin B6 [32].

Vitamin "B-9", folic acid:Folic acid used to be called vitamin B-9 and vitamin M. Initially, dietary folic acid was given to people with pregnancy-related anemia in the form of autolyzed yeast. Later, a synthetic USP isolate was developed [10]. Pteroylglutamate (folate) is the common pharmacological (USP) form of folic acid, which is not found in the body to any significant extent [10]. "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folic acid" [50]. As with most dietary supplements, folic acid is not found in food, but it does exist [15]. Too little folic acid can lead to fatigue, depression, confusion, anemia, decreased immune function, loss of intestinal villi, and increased infection [11]. Folate deficiency is the most important factor leading to high homocysteine ​​levels [11], and folic acid supplementation can effectively reduce homocysteine ​​[51,52]. "The highest concentrations of folic acid were found in yeast... and broccoli" [10]. Too little folic acid can lead to fatigue, depression, confusion, anemia, decreased immune function, loss of intestinal villi, and increased infection [11]. "Intake of synthetic folic acid (PGA) in excess of 266 µg results in absorption of unreduced PGA, which impairs folate metabolism over several years" [10]. Articles from 2004british medical journalConfirms what many naturopaths have known all along: because folic acid is unnatural and the body cannot fully convert large amounts of folic acid into usable folic acid, this man-made substance can be absorbed and may have unknown negative effects on the body [22 ]- Appendix Foods containing folic acid should obviously be in the form of dietary folic acid, not folic acid.

Vitamin B-12:The natural active forms are methylcobalamin and deoxyadenosylcobalamin, which are found in food [10]. Cyanocobalamin is not a natural active form [10]; it is an isolated crystal structure [1]. Originally a natural compound foodVitamin B12 is given to pernicious anemia patients in raw liver form, but a synthetic USP isolate was developed to save money [7]. According to Dr. Victor Herbert (and others), vitamin B-12 is nontoxic when taken in its active human form, but Dr. Herbert (and others) warns, "It produces vitamin B12 similar to The efficacy and safety of the drug ... are at risk." The interactions of nutrients in vitamin-mineral supplements are unclear [52]. Some synthetic vitamin B12 analogs appear to antagonize the activity of vitamin B12 in the body [53,54]. Most synthetic B-12 is produced through a fermentation process with the addition of cyanide [4].

Vitamin B-x, vitamin B-8, choline and other vitamin B factors: PABA was formerly known as vitamin B-x and inositol was formerly known as vitamin B-8. Together with choline, they are considered cofactors of B vitamins.

At high doses, PABA "is indicated for Peyronie's disease, scleroderma, morphea, and linear scleroderma" [11]. A non-food version of PABA is made from coal tar [2]. In addition, there is a synthetic form of potassium salt called potassium anthranilate that cannot be used in food [11]. PABA is found in foods such as kidney, liver, molasses, mushroom foods, spinach, and whole grains [55].

The non-food form of inositol is made from sulfuric acid-treated phytic acid [2]. Inositol is an adipotrophic factor that is also necessary for hair growth. While nutritional yeast is probably the best source of inositol, it is also found in fruits, lecithin, legumes, meats, milk, unrefined molasses, raisins, vegetables, and whole grains [55].

Choline bitartrate and choline chloride, the most common types found in so-called “natural” vitamin supplements, are actually “commercial salts”[11]—they are synthetic forms. Ethylene is involved in the production of one or more synthetic forms [2].

Phosphatidylcholine is the most important form of choline supply and occurs naturally in many foods such as beef liver, egg yolks and soybeans [11]. Specially bred nutritional yeast appears to be the best form of food for supplementation.

Vitamin C:Vitamin C occurs naturally in fruit in two forms, ascorbic acid and bioflavonoids [10]. Non-food, so-called "natural" ascorbic acid is produced by fermenting corn sugar into sorbitol, which is then hydrogenated until converted to sorbose. Acetone (commonly known as nail polish remover) is then added to break the molecular bonds formed with the separated crystalline ascorbic acid. It contains neither forms of vitamin C nor bioflavonoids and is therefore too incomplete to be properly called vitamin C [2]. The patented "vitamin C" compound is advertised as being less acidic than ascorbic acid, and is also non-food (natural vitamins found in food are unlikely to be patented in the US - any time a health professional hears that a vitamin is patented, this should be a warning that it not real food). andin vitroStudies have shown that vitamin C food complex has a negative ORP (oxidation reduction potential) [27].Merck Indexshowed that so-called "natural" ascorbic acid has a positive ORP [1] (negative ORP is better because it helps to "clear" oxidative damage, whereas products with a positive ORP do not) [56]. Vitamin C Food Complex It is also 10 times less acidic than ascorbic acid.

The many functions involved in vitamin C include collagen formation, carnitine biosynthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis, improvement of iron absorption, immunity, antioxidant defense, potential anticancer effects, protection of folic acid and vitamin E from oxidation and cholesterol degradation[ 1]. .

One study found that vitamin C complex foods contained 492 micromoles of T.E. per gram. have. (Trolox equivalent) hydrophilic ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) [57] – ORAC is essentially a measure of free radical scavenging capacity (antioxidant capacity) – whereas blueberries (one of the highest sources of ORAC [23]) have only 195 micromoles per gram T.E. [57] – Thus the ORAC capacity of vitamin C complex food is 2.52 times that of blueberries. The ORAC of foods containing vitamin C was more than 15.6 times higher than that of ascorbic acid alone [23] (complex food vitamin C was even higher). In fact, isolated ascorbic acid has been suspected to have significant antioxidant effects in humans [29]. For anyone interested in ORACs, vitamin C in food is clearly superior.

Despite the superiority of dietary vitamin C over isolated ascorbic acid [8], at least one senior researcher wrote: "The bioavailability of vitamin C in 'natural form' from foods and dietary supplements was not significantly different from pure synthetic AA" [10] That's not true at all. The author cites two works as "proof". The first citation was a study that concluded that the bioavailability was similar because serum ascorbic acid levels were at similar levels after consumption of different foods containing vitamin C and synthetic ascorbic acid [58]. These conclusions seem to ignore the fact that DHAA or other food components related to natural vitamin C may have potentially beneficial effects beyond raising serum ascorbic acid levels. The second citation is a study that probably shouldn't have been cited because it never compared vitamin C as a food complex to synthetic ascorbic acid (it compared synthetic ascorbic acid to Ester-C, which is a synthetic ascorbic acid and selected metabolites) . . and synthetic ascorbic acid mixed with some bioflavonoids) [59]. So those who claim there is no difference don't actually have convincing scientific evidence to support their claims to the contrary.

Recent scientific studies (previously cited, eg 8,23,27,57) show that vitamin C is superior to ascorbic acid isolated from food.

Vitamin D:The history of synthetic vitamin D is astounding. "The first vitamin isolated was the photoproduct of irradiation of the fungal sterol ergosterol. This vitamin was called D1...Vitamin D obtained by irradiation of ergosterol had low antirickets activity" [60] - In other words That being said, the first synthetic vitamin D does not work like natural vitamin D. "At the time of identification it was assumed that the vitamin D produced by the skin when exposed to sunlight was vitamin D2, but it was later known that human skin produces a substance called vitamin D3 [60]. It was originally assumed that provitamin D3 was directly converted to vitamin D3, But this is not true. The skin actually contains a substance commonly referred to as provitamin D3; upon exposure to sunlight, provitamin D3 is produced and begins to isomerize to vitamin D2 in a temperature dependent process by This isomerized vitamin D3 is transported from the plasma membrane to the extracellular space.Vitamin D2 was used to enrich milk in the United States and Canada for about forty years until D3 was shown to be a substance with a better antirickets effect, which is Reasons why D3 has been used for 25 years [60]. But vitamin D has many benefits unrelated to rickets: B and T lymphocytes have been shown to have vitamin D receptors similar to those found in the gut, and vitamin D appears to affect phagocytosis , and may even have antiproliferative effects on tumor cells [60]. A single isolated USP form of vitamin D has not been shown to provide all the benefits of the natural form of vitamin D. (Because vitamin D is not particularly stable, manufacturers also use product labeling 1.5 to 2 times the amount of synthetic vitamin D advertised on the diet. This caused problems in neonates and hypercalcemia.[60] A previous report showed, “The role of natural vitamin D in protecting chickens and children from rickets Approximately 100 times more potent than irradiated ergosterol.” [61], USP Vitamin D2.

New analogues of vitamin D are still being developed: some may have a greater effect on calcium utilization [62], some may even be helpful in breast cancer [63] - but this may actually be a pharmacological rather than Naturopathic use, since these analogues do not feed. Given the historical errors of supplemental forms of vitamin D, it is reasonable to conclude that additional benefits may be found in vitamin D from natural sources, further distinguishing it from synthetic isolates.

Vitamin D is not isolated, but exists as a combination of substances with stimulating metabolites, including vitamin D3 [10]. The non-food analogues of vitamins D1, D2, D3 and D4 are isolates and do not promote metabolites. USP D1 has no significant anti-rachi effect [10], is crystalline, and is produced with benzene [1]. USP D2 is believed to be a synthetic form produced by electron bombardment of ergosterol [1] and "obtained by solvent extraction" [2]. USP D3 and D4 are produced by irradiating animal fat [1,10,31] or by irradiating "bovine spinal cord and brain" [2]. Scientists are even developing a "new" form of vitamin D (supposedly an analog) to help treat osteoporosis [64] - you can't invent a natural vitamin! Some medicines are chemically similar to vitamin D in food, but that doesn't mean they're the real vitamin. The antirickets activity of dietary vitamin D has been reported to be at least 10-fold higher than that of one or more USP forms alone [65].

Vitamin E:Natural vitamin E, “found in foods, is [d]-alpha-tocopherol, whereas chemical synthesis produces a mixture of eight epimers” [66] (natural vitamin E has recently been renamed).deposit reserve ratio-Alpha-Tocopherol, although synthetics are now called All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol, supplement labels rarely state this explicitly; on supplement labels, d-alpha tocopherol is usually "natural," while dl- alpha tocopherol is synthetic [25]). naturedeposit reserve ratio-Alpha-tocopherol traps free radicals 1.7 to 4.0 times better than other tocopherols.deposit reserve ratio- Alpha-tocopherol is three times more biologically active than the alpha-tocotrienol form, while synthetic vitamin E is not at all as biologically active as natural vitamin E (some synthetic forms are only 2% bioactive).deposit reserve ratio-α-tocopherol) [25]. Thus, the biological activity of vitamin E is based on its ability to reverse specific symptoms of vitamin E deficiency [25].It is a scientific fact that, in general, synthetic vitamin E is not as effective in correcting vitamin E deficiency as dietary vitamin EThere is an interesting reason for this: the body regulates vitamin E in the plasma to transport alpha-tocopherol to the liver via a specific protein that is absent from other forms of vitamin E [25]. In other words, the liver produces protein to process dietary vitamin E, rather than the synthetic form. The body is 2.7 times more likely to retain natural vitamin E than the synthetic form [30].

Even the lead researcher teaches: "Vitamin E is an exception to the paradigm of equivalence of synthetic and natural vitamins because they have the same molecular structure...Synthetic vitamin E is obtained by combining trimethylhydroquinone (TMHQ) with produced by the commercial coupling of isophytic alcohols.” This chemical reaction produces a difficult-to-separate mixture of eight isomers”[67] (Vitamin E is not the only exception, of course—all nutrients are betterEssen). The bioavailability of isolated natural vitamin E was found to be twice that of synthetic vitamin E [68]. The form of vitamin E is found inEssenIt has been found to be retained in the body 2.7 times better than the synthetic form [26] - this appears to be due to the body trying to get rid of the synthetic form as quickly as possible [26]. Dietary vitamin E found in specially grown rice has been shown to contain 12 micromoles per gram of T.E. Lipophilic ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) [57] – ORAC is essentially a measure of free radical scavenging capacity (antioxidant capacity). Interestingly, the so-called "natural" forms (like succinate) don't even work that wayEssenVitamin EevenPeople's Democratic Republicstates that “d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate has no antioxidant activity by itself” [32], so why would anyone use it as a vitamin E supplement?

Both the chemical form and source of vitamin E may play a role, as "chemically synthesized alpha-tocopherol is different from the natural form" [25]. Those who claim that a synthetic vitamin, even if it is the same "chemical form" (never in the same actual form due to the presence of food ingredients) is as good as a vitamin in natural food form, are simply ignoring the scientific facts about vitamins.

Vitamin E is required for optimal development and maintenance of the nervous system and skeletal muscles [67]. Vitamin E deficiency can lead to certain anemias, nutritional muscular dystrophies, reproductive problems, and hyperlipidemia [66]. Vitamin E has been shown to reduce the risk of various cancers, coronary heart disease, cataract formation and even air pollution [25,67]. It is also thought to slow down the aging process and reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress [25,67]. Artificial fats appear to increase vitamin E requirements [69]. Vitamin E content is highest in vegetable oils and relatively high in avocado (4.31 iU each) [70] and rice bran [71].

Naturally occurring vitamin E in food is (also known as [d]-alpha-tocopherol).deposit reserve ratio-α-tocopherol) and never appeared as an isolate [10]. The so-called "natural" forms are most often found in dietary supplements as isolates, so they never occur in nature.

Vitamin "H", Biotin:The only natural active form isD-(+) Biotin, usually bound to proteins [10]. Non-dietary biotin is usually an isolated, synthetic, crystalline form that is not bound to proteins [1]. Biotin-L-sulfoxide is an isolated and/or non-food form containing pimelic acid, an isolate with less than 1% of the vitamin H activity of dietary biotin [1].

Vitamin K:Vitamin K occurs naturally in plants as phylloquinone [10]. Non-food vitamin K3 Menadione is now considered hazardous and is a synthetic derivative of naphthoquinone (naphthalene is a derivative of coal tar)[1]. USP K1, also known as phylloquinone, is an isolate commonly synthesized from p-allylnickel [1]. Another form of vitamin K, called dihydrovitamin K1, is accidentally formed during the hydrogenation of oils [72]; most people. Dark leafy vegetables and cabbage [74] appear to be the main dietary sources of vitamin K [75].

Types of vitamins available

In fact, there are only two types of vitamins commercially available: dietary and non-dietary. Food vitamin labels often say something like "100% food." Sometimes the label also says "No USP Nutrients" or "No Synthetic Nutrients."

However, the role of non-food vitamins is not so obvious. First, none of the non-food vitamins this researcher had seen had "100% food" on the label, and none that said "no unique selling proposition or synthetic nutrient"—so if those two terms Neither, and you can usually agree with certainty to conclude that vitamins don't come from food. If the label states that the product contains "pharmaceutical grade" USP vitamins or nutrients, all naturopathic practitioners must be aware that the product is not a food. Also, when a multivitamin or B-complex formula states that it is "yeast-free," it's actually a guarantee that it contains synthetic nutrients.

Just because a company uses the words "natural" or "all-natural" to describe its vitamins doesn't mean they're actually natural—this is becauseThe US government has no natural definition!Even if a company is known for offering natural products, that doesn't mean their vitamins aren't synthetic - check the label carefully to prove that the product is indeed 100% food.

Some companies seem to be confusing the issue by using the term "food-based" on their supplement labels."Food-based" vitamins are almost always USP vitamins mixed with small amounts of food.This blend doesn't change the chemical form of the vitamin, so it's still a vitamin analog, not a food vitamin (which is different from food because real food vitamins aren't simple blends).

Some other companies (who don't use the term "food-based") mix food with vitamin analogs, seeming to imply that the vitamin is a food. For example, if the label displays something likeVitamin C (Vitamin C, Acerola Cherry)Then it's also often a synthetic mixture added to food. If the product is a food, it usually states that the vitamin C is present in the food or comes from acerola, rather than using the term "vitamin C" twice in a row on the label (many companies confuse ascorbic acid with acerola).

Many companies use the term "yeast-free" on their synthetic vitamin labels, which seems to imply that yeast should not be used in the vitamin. There are some problems with this. The first is that several vitamins that are not isolated from food are produced by yeast prior to industrial processing and isolation. Therefore, multivitamin formulations are unlikely to contain some yeast, yeast extract, or yeast by-products [1,2]. Another problem is that nutritional yeast is not the same as brewer's yeast, which is essentially a waste by-product.


Most vitamins sold are not food products but synthetically processed extracts of petroleum and/or hydrogenated sugars—even if the label says "natural." They are not in the same chemical or structural form as the true vitamins found in food; therefore, they are not natural to the body. True natural vitamins from food are preferred over synthetic vitamins [8,16,41]. Dietary vitamins are functionally superior to those from non-dietary sources because they are preferentially absorbed and/or stored by the body. Isolated non-food vitamins, although chemically indistinguishable, are simply fractionated nutrients.

Studies cited in this article show that the bioavailability of dietary vitamins is superior to that of most isolated USP vitamins, that they may be more effective in maintaining human health than conventional vitamin deficiency syndromes, and that at least some of them appear to be advisable to preserve in the human body. It is not always clear whether these benefits are attributable to the physicochemical form of the vitamin, other natural components of the diet, or a combination thereof. Regardless, the conclusion that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic vitamins for the maintenance of normal health seems logical [8,16,41]. Unlike some synthetic vitamins, there are no natural vitamins found that perform all their natural functions.

In fact, only foods or supplements that are 100% food are considered safer than non-food vitamin analogs. Proponents of natural health say their health is built on the food or the nutrients in the food. That was the standard set for the profession in 1947 - the standard - and the naturopathic professional's commitment to authentic natural healing should continue today.


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Some of these studies (or citations) may not meet the review criteria. Therefore, the results are inconclusive. When reviewing scientific data, experts can, and often do, come to different conclusions.None of these statements have been reviewed by the FDA.All products sold by Doctors' Research, Inc. They are used for nutrition, not to treat or prevent any disease.

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